This aspect of the Dhamma namely Kamma as one's refuge is emphasized in several places in the SuttaPitaka. A notable instance and an oft-quoted passge occurs in the AnguttraNikaya,PanchakaNipata-pp. 87 and 88. "My Kamma is my possession. My Kamma is my inheritance. My Kamma is the womb that bears me. My Kamma is the race to which I am skin. My Kamma is my refuge."
Religion, as is ordinarily understood, binds one to such untenable beliefs as a Supreme Creator, immortal soul, eternal heavens and hells. The Buddha Dhamma is free from such beliefs, dogmas, superstitions, and speculative theories. Hence, it cannot strictly be called a religion. The Dhamma is essentially the teaching of cause and effect (Hetuphalavada).
The Four Noble Truths are thus:
1. Life means suffering
2. The origin of suffering is attachment.
3. The cessation of suffering is attainable.
4. The path to the cessation of suffering.
1. To be born is to suffer
The end of a long process of mental activity, not long perhaps as chronological time is involved, but long in a line of experiences and consequences, there comes consciousness.
It begins, if one may speak of a beginning anywhere at all, with a physical contact (phassa) with one of the six senses of perception (salayatana). This produces a sensation (vedana) which is the experiencing of a challenge. It is at this stage that the process tends to become mental, when the sensation is perceived (sanna).
He who aspires to attain Samma Smabuddhahood is called a Bodhisattva. This Bodhisattva ideal is the most refined and the most beautiful that is ever presented to this ego-centric world, for what is nobler than a life of service and purity.
In the Middle Length sayings of Gotama Buddha, it has been recorded:
"The Buddha is like a physician in that He is able to heal sickness of the defilements. The dhamma is like a rightly applied medicine, and the Sangha with the defilements cured, are like people restored to health by the medicine."
The feeling of a separate "I", which we call ego-consciousness, is directly related to the strength of ignorance, greed, and hatred. The deepest meaning of ignorance is the believing in, identifying with and clinging to the ego, which as we have seen, is nothing but an illusive mental phenomenon. But because of this strong clinging to ego-consciousness, attachment/desire, anger/hatred arise and repeatedly gain strength.
Religion, as is ordinarily understood, binds one to such untenable beliefs as a Supreme Creator, immortal soul, eternal heavens and hells. The Buddha Dhamma is free from such beliefs, dogmas, superstitions, and speculative theories. Hence, it cannot strictly be called a religion. The Dhamma is essentially the teaching of cause and effect (Hetu phala vada).
This article is intended to clarify the nature of ancient Buddhist chant, and its significance to the admirers who are truly interested in inner peace and relaxation through melodious Buddhist chant. The ancient Buddhist chant has not been prevalent, even unknown and unheard, in the Western world although it has been a popularly daily cultural and spiritual exercise among the practitioners of Buddhism in Buddhist countries. However, later in this century, the westerners are slowly beginning to draw their attention to this ritual and spiritual practice.
The concept of Dependent Arising paticcasamuppada can be considered as the central philosophy of Buddhism. It expresses the content of the Buddha's enlightenment experience. It is the concept in terms of which the fundamental teachings of the Buddha can be explained. The Buddha himself emphasized its central importance when he said that he who sees dependent arising sees the dhamma. The Madhyamaka system of Buddhist thought developed its interpretation of the Buddha's teaching entirely on the principle of dependent arising.